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The Czech Republic with a size just smaller than South Carolina, is made up of two principal areas, Bohemia in the west and Moravia in the east.  For most of the twentieth century, the present country of Slovakia which borders the Czech Republic on the east, was joined with Moravia and Bohemia as the country of Czechoslovakia.  Czechoslovakia was founded as an independent democratic country at the end of World War I, in 1918 from several culturally related parts of the former Austro-Hungarian empire.  After the 1989 Velvet Revolution when the communist government was overthrown, the country continued as Czechoslovakia until 1993 when the so-called Velvet Divorce led to the creation of two new independent states, Czech Republic and Slovakia.  The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague and the capital of Slovakia is Bratislava.

The Czech Republic’s landscape is quite varied. Bohemia, to the west, consists of a river basin, drained by the Labe (becomes the Elbe in Germany) and Vltava rivers. It is surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the Sudetes with its part Krkonoše, containing the highest point in the country, the Sněžka at 5,256 ft.

Moravia, the eastern part, is also quite hilly and is drained predominantly by the Morava river, but also contains the source of the Odra river. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also possesses Moldauhafen, a 30,000 7.4-acre enclave in the middle of Hamburg docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported downriver could be transferred to seagoing ships; this territory reverts to Germany in 2028.

Map of the Czech Republic showing bordering countries, principal cities and rivers.

Area:   total: 30,450 sq mi

Land boundaries:   total: 1,169 mi

Bordering countries: Austria 225 mi, Germany 506 mi, Poland 304 mi, Slovakia 134 mi

From Wikipedia:

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